Genetics University of Manchester

German captain Uwe Seeler shakes hands with England captain Bobby MooreGerman captain Uwe Seeler (left) shakes hands with England captain Bobby Moore before the start of the World Cup final at Wembley in 1966. A major genetic study has revealed different genetic clusters across the UK, but overall white Britons share 30% of their DNA with modern Germans. Photograph: Evening Standard/Getty Images

The Romans, Vikings and Normans may have ruled or invaded the British for hundreds of years, but they left barely a trace on our DNA, the first detailed study of the genetics of British people has revealed.

The analysis shows that the Anglo-Saxons were the only conquering force, around 400-500 AD, to substantially alter the country’s genetic makeup, with most white British people now owing almost 30% of their DNA to the ancestors of modern-day Germans.

People living in southern and central England today typically share about 40% of their DNA with the French, 11% with the Danes and 9% with the Belgians, the study of more than 2, 000 people found. The French contribution was not linked to the Norman invasion of 1066, however, but a previously unknown wave of migration to Britain some time after then end of the last Ice Age nearly 10, 000 years ago.

Prof Peter Donnelly, director of the Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics at the University of Oxford, who co-led the research, said: “It has long been known that human populations differ genetically, but never before have we been able to observe such exquisite and fascinating detail.”

Map of the UK showing clustering of individuals based on genetics, and its striking relationship with geography. Photograph: Stephen Leslie/Nature/EuroGeographics

The population of the Orkney Isles was found to be the most genetically distinct, with 25% of DNA coming from Norwegian ancestors who invaded the islands in the 9th century.

The Welsh also showed striking differences to the rest of Britain, and scientists concluded that their DNA most closely resembles that of the earliest hunter-gatherers to have arrived when Britain became habitable again after the Ice Age.

“The Celtic regions one might have expected to be genetically similar, but they’re among the most different in our study, ” said Mark Robinson, an archaeologist from the Oxford University Museum of Natural History and a co-author. “It’s stressing their genetic difference, it’s not saying there aren’t cultural similarities.”

The study, published on Wednesday in the journal Nature, is the culmination of 20 years of work. Scientists began collecting DNA samples from people in Orkney in 1994 and gradually worked across most of the British Isles.

The participants were all white British, lived in rural areas and had four grandparents all born within 50 miles (80km) of each other. Since a quarter of our genome comes from each of our grandparents, the scientists were effectively obtaining a snapshot of British genetics at at the beginning of the 20th century.

Sir Walter Bodmer, of the University of Oxford, who conceived the study, said: “We’re reaching back in time to before most of the mixing of the population, which would fog history.”

The team also looked at data from 6, 209 individuals from 10 European countries to reconstruct the contributions their ancestors made to the genetic makeup of the British.

What if i cant prove my tips on my taxes? what is the difference between a class and an instance of a class? How to clean concrete? Tips on how to eat a p? What is the capital of pennsylvania? How to read hsv test results? How do tips on receipts work? how to reset main skills in oblivion how to use a helper function in another function javascript what is the definition of story elements How to remove semi permanent hair dye? What does pin high mean? How to reassemble the tips of a dayan pyraminx? What does red kingdom meaning? What is the meaning of dos oruguitas? What does a gemini look like? where to get advice without being coddled advice on how to cut cat's nails what type of excel skills would be important in todays job market and why How to activate facebook dating? What does an std look like? what is the difference between a liberal and a libertarian Linus tech tips how to get products testing? what activates a helper t-cell? quizlet i don't give business advice to people if i haven't been through it or know someone who has What cancel culture meaning? What does gs mean for shoes? Tips on how to get my fearful dog used to walking? What episode does carl lose his eye? What does fuk yoh mean? What does a enlarged uterus mean? what are the benefits of walking 2 miles a day How to fill a money order? daz3d, how to use hat and hair helper What are the first signs of tourette's? how to use up commuter benefits what is the hebrew word in genesis 2 to describe helper What is the meaning of gobe? what is the difference between methadone and methadose What time does the sun come up tomorrow? what skills do we need to participate in a hackathon What does carl dean do for a living? fire emblem what are attack skills What are the 78 gender pronouns? What is a bruin? How much to spay a cat? How to do tricks in mkwii? What tricks did matilda play on ms trunchbull? What does rx bin mean? What is the correct meaning of judgment? how to unlock all skills in payday 2 What does latinx mean? How to unlock sim card without puk code? how does testosterone improve athletic performance How to block websites on chrome? What does cmyk stand for? What does refinancing a car mean? How to tell if raw chicken is bad? what are the benefits of juicing celery what is the definition of fuckboi advice on how to have sex with sister How to graph an inequality? websites where you can ask for advice what skills are hr employers looking for What does intravenous mean? How to find end behavior? what are the benefits of being a mentor difference between how to improve the performance in informatica how to improve writing emails How to speed up nerve regeneration after prostate surgery? What does intercourse mean? how to improve communication in negotiation How to find distance between two points? what advice would an agent give to a seller how to improve linkedin profile visibility How to keep photographer image out of crystal ball photography tips? What does s&m mean? what is the difference between hypo and hyperthyroidism What does upset mean? What does paradox mean? What angel number 444 meaning? What does miercoles mean in spanish? what is the definition of the distributive property a one-way relationship in which one species benefits and directly hurts the other is called How to do tricks on board sa2? how to improve baby digestion What is the meaning of 333 in numerology? What is the meaning of ace in volleyball? If you are lonely when you are alone meaning? what skills do you need for an internship What does stay frosty mean? what if i exhausted my unemployment benefits How to care for chickens? How to do tricks with hydraulics in gta 5? What does itchy feet mean spiritually? What does polite mean? What is big spoon little spoon meaning? How to do split screen on mac? what is the definition of carefully what is the difference of genotype and phenotype How to pronounce what? What is the meaning of ppmc? What does salvation mean in the bible? what are the benefits of using virtualization what is the difference between administering prescribing and dispensing medication what are the nutritional benefits of vegetables How to do a waterfall braid? What is red roses meaning? How to add square roots? what is the best way to upgrade my old school graphic design skills identify which definition is the correct one for natal policy What is the meaning of erythema? What does aristocrat mean? What does the zodiac sign look like? how to improve blood circulation in the body how to improve running speed improve gaem where you have to talk in questions what is the definition of renewable resource which is a definition of essential fat quizlet Tips in philippines on how to grow cannabis outdoor? What are consecutive integers? Dirty tricks cops use: and why they use them? How to do a screenshot on android? Fantasy stories where an animal is playing tricks? what is the difference between worcestershire sauce and soy sauce How to get more tips on doordash? what is the difference between nlt and niv What are the weaknesses of the articles of confederation? what type of service provides advice about airport conditions when a control tower is not operating how to improve skills tick at shooting games without aim assist How to do primo tricks? What do pro pool players prefer in cue tips? What is the meaning of radicalism? what advice does thoreau offer to his "fellows" about ownership of land or property] what is a simple definition of autism what is the difference between slmb and qi-1 What does monotonous mean? How to start a small business? How to be stylish girl tips? How to disable tips as new wow character? what is the definition of directional derivatives. How to make yourself squirt? How to hide taskbar? What does the name nolan mean? Parasites are commonly associated with what food? What does platos closet take? when do unemployment benefits end in new york which government program pays more benefits to children than any other government program? What is a rainbow kiss? How old to get a tattoo? Who can see your future posts meaning? What does seeing a red bird mean? what can a child social security benefits be used for What does habit mean? how to get skills ffxiv how reliable is jim rickards advice What size comply foam tips should i get? how to improve japanese speaking what are the benefits of written communication what is the definition of data table what is the difference between hodgkin's and non hodgkin's lymphoma How to cancel fubo subscription? how to improve seo ranking on google What does pfp mean in text? What does necking mean? eder what skills on level up how long does it take to improve sperm morphology How to crack your upper back? what is google chrome vs helper how to use lucid helper addon How to ask for tips on postmates politely? what book inthe bible gives advice on every day living Tips for autistic kids who laugh? How to make gravy for beef tips and rice? what do you see as washington’s two greatest pieces of advice to the nation? did we follow it? How to do tricks in air apex? Tips for how to quit smoking? What does wtv mean in text? How to add a signature in outlook? best advice when fishing when the weather turns cold from warm the same day What is term life insurance? What is focus status on iphone? What does mount mean? What is the meaning of round character in literature? How to know if a function is even or odd? what can i do to improve my hypothyroidism how to move from friends with benefits to dating what other brands would you consider for career, financial advice, and networking events? What does transvestite mean? what is insurance and benefits surcharge what is the difference between allusion and illusion how do you measure a window for curtains How to go vegan? Tricks how to teach number 5 and 6 to kids? what is the difference between entropion and ectropion how to get advice about going on disability how to turn off ask for advice What does abnormal mean? Tips on how to get contacts out? How to do tricks with motorcycle in pubg? what is one of the major benefits of display ads what is the difference between a horse and a zebra How to find out what motherboard i have? what is the difference between omicron and covid what is the difference between patio and porch how to improve environmental sustainability in the workplace which of the following is a key difference between managerial and nonmanagerial employees? what transferable skills are required for an athletics trainer What are twinks? how to teach knife skills to cub scout what is in dr. seltzer's hardon helper What is the meaning of coordination number? bdo horses do skills matter when breeding what are the benefits of rocks and minerals what is the definition of an output device what is cultural racism definition what is a boggart definition What does ussr mean? how to improve cross country running times through nutrition what is the difference between newborn and 0-3 months How long does it take blood pressure medicine to work? What does monistat do? Why are the tips of my bonsai turning brown? what is the difference between pfizer and j&j vaccine the best advice on "how to get a job" laszlo bock What does mta stand for? What does 14k gold mean? what is a conditional use permit definition what is the best definition of a management information system what is the original hamburger helper how use helper function in class python How can up earlier tips becoming? What does morbidity mean? How to clear chrome cache? what is the definition of movement family advice when spouse is in mental ward What does emulated mean?
Interesting facts
Related video
Rise of the genetically-mutated SUPER RATS: Giant rodents
Rise of the genetically-mutated SUPER RATS: Giant rodents ...
05: Genetic Medicine (MRes): Bill Newman: Manchester
05: Genetic Medicine (MRes): Bill Newman: Manchester ...
The brave new world of genomics: genetics and medicine
The brave new world of genomics: genetics and medicine ...
Related Posts